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Ink , fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle. Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China.
45 to Sec under Chapter-II of the Indian Evidence Act provide relevancy of opinion Expert’s Opinion and its admissibility & relevancy: An Analysis in view of Law of Evidence 4) The specimen seal shall be on sealing wax and not in the ink. to pieces or remove portions for the purpose of the said examination. Date.
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Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
Utpal Garain at Indian Statistical Institute the forensic experts do in determining ink age. images, which are spread over five decades, their dating is to.
Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.
We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries. Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink. As the ink ages these components decrease and thus the approximate age of the writing can be determined. Not to the same degree as handwritten documents or signatures.
It is not possible to determine commercial availability of these materials with the same degree of certainty as was possible with writing ink. It is, however, often possible to ascertain enough information to provide a list of possible sources and thus a range of commercial availability dates. The ability to further examine these materials, as was described previously, does not exist to the same degree.
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IFS is Govt. Act, ; UNI. MSYS ; also Regd. Court to examine various Documents, Handwriting and Signatures. We regularly receives cases from court, police and government departments. We also accept cases from private, public and individual clients.
Pt. Ashok Kashyap is an expert examiner of forensic finger prints, handwriting, forgery & questioned documents. Only Indian expert analyst trained by Miami.
Relations have warmed in recent years and cooperation has strengthened across a range of economic and political areas. Violent clashes between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims follow, and as many as a million die in bloodshed amidst the forced migration of up to twenty million people. Truman on a multi-week tour tour of the United States. This sets the tone for U. President Dwight Eisenhower is the first serving U. Nine American universities and the U.
Under the Kanpur Indo-American Program [PDF], American faculty members develop academic programs and research laboratories at the new university over a decade. The partnership is one of many examples of higher education collaboration between the two countries. War breaks out between India and China over a disputed frontier. Kennedy to request support from the United States. Washington supports India in the conflict, recognizing the McMahon line as the border, and provides air assistance and arms.
Until the Inda-Pakistan War, strategic and military ties between Washington and Delhi remain close.
In Corporate Crimes, Paper Trail Often Leads to Ink Analysts’ Door
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors.
During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.
In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents In some locales, a clear distinction is made between the terms ‘forensic document examiner’ and a ‘forensic handwriting expert/examiner’. Beyond the above, additional desirable skills include knowledge of paper, ink, printing.
We are a team of hand writing experts in New Delhi, India caters the need of examination of the handwriting and documents all over India. We have submitted signature verification expert opinions under section 45 of Indian Evidence Act to various courts in India and abroad. Signatures verification in New Delhi, writing experts delhi, use of typewriter and printer expert. Forgery detection for cut and paste of signatures, Age of the document expert new delhi India, Ink identification new delhi, opinion on handwriting for civil Court cases, Forensic photography of disputed documents, fingerprint experts india, Forensic Signature Verification india, Handwriting Expert Delhi, Fingerprint Expert Delhi, FBI fingerprinting India.
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forged document identification by ink aging technique
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A new method that determines the age of a document in a less invasive way than other techniques and is also able to date documents up to five.
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Questioned document examination
Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of persons reluctant to admit previous arrests. The science of fingerprint identification 5 stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following:. Has served governments worldwide for over a century by providing accurate identification of persons. No two fingerprints have ever been found alike in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons.
There are 2 forms of Ink Dating i.e 1) Static Approach and 2) Dynamic Approach. In static approach, the ink is being manufactured while.
Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.
Date Coding Machine
Know more. Load More. The brief facts leading to filing of this rev Therefore, the revision petitioners have filed I. The expert has given his opinion on the documents without any opinion as to the age of the ink used in the documents Exs. As observed by the Apex Court, in the above
Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China. India ink is a dispersion of carbon black in water; the suspension is stabilized.
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age.
The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating.
Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages.
We have gone through your all photographs, comparisons, detection job and other hard work for identifying the real culprit is highly appreciable”. Toggle navigation. With reference to the above. I am sending herewith the Demand Draft for Rs.
A client gives a blank stamp paper signed,when asked by a lawer criminal to file a writ in high court,after a period of 6 months. The lawyer cheats the client to the tune of Rs 15 00 ,by selling a fraudulent land. I would like to know how the client can prove that the lawyer has used the blank stamp paper signed by him as a document against him. The client can get the money only if he proves it is forged document,by identifying he has signed the long before and the fraudulent lawyer has written the statement recently.
If the culprit lawyer escapes the law of land ,he will become detrimental to the society as whole. Dear Querist. Opinions of experts. Such persons are called experts. The CFL did not give any opinion on ink writing that was done latter. The Judges passed the verdict in favor of accused. This is a classic case,where the lawyer gets the client sign the document in blank stamp paper telling him requierd for filling writ in High court and lack of time instead utilises the same document to fill in his hand writing ,He has returned the money that he ows the client i.
If there are any experts who can Identify the dates of writing,because the client signed and gave the paper 6 months back and the culprit lawyer used that after a period of 6 months.